How to distinguish a truly natural gifted children who show high achievement, thanks to the particular conditions of education (sometimes due to the forced “coaching” from the parents, coaches, tutors, etc.)? This delicate issue requires not only the use of special techniques, but mastering branched differentiated mesh specific concepts. This section focuses more on theoretical concepts and less – description of specific techniques. This, in particular, is justified by the fact that some methods to measure the creative potential of individuals (eg, adapted techniques E. Torrance, techniques DB Epiphany and others) require a high level of specialized training and in violation of the fine details of diagnostic procedures may provide completely invalid state information on the level of potential in the individual child.
“CAPACITY” – one of the most common psychological concepts. In our psychology, many authors gave him full definitions.
Teplov proposed three empirical essentially characteristic abilities that formed the basis for determining the most frequently used by specialists: 1) the ability – it’s individual psychological characteristics that distinguish one person from another, and 2) only those features that are relevant to the success of a business or a few activities, and 3) the ability, can not be reduced to knowledge, skills and experience that have developed in humans, although the cause and the ease and speed of acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Capable of everything comes easier, and unable to shed more sweat and tears.
There is a problem, what kind of mental entity – the ability? One indication of the behavioral and subjective manifestations of it (and the definition of Teplov – in fact – behavioral) is not enough.
This is discussed in detail in the works of Shadrikova D. (1994). He comes to the conclusion that the concept of “ability” is a psychological category specification of the properties’ ability can be defined as the functional properties of systems that implement specific mental functions have individual measure of severity, manifested in the success of the uniqueness and quality of development and implementation of specific mental functions. In determining the severity of the individual measures of abilities appropriate to adhere to the same parameters as in the characterization of any activity: performance, quality and reliability (in terms of the function). ”
VD Shadrikov introduces the concept of general endowments, determining its suitability as a wide range of activities, or a combination of abilities that affect the success of different activities, but in this case, the total is not preceded by the particular, but rather is the result of a “build” of the individual elements.
Meanwhile, the principle of “common precedes the particular”, which is the result of a general process of differentiation, is the principle of the development of functional systems more developed modern psychology and psychophysiology (Anokhin).
Distinguishing between specific and general skills, DN Zavalishina after Teplov binds general abilities with the more general terms of the leading forms of human activity, and special – to certain activities. Thus, once again the ability not classified by type of mental functional system, and by activity. Hence, again, there are difficulties in carrying out the boundaries between, for example, “music”, “flight”, “locksmith” and other abilities and, respectively, “music”, “flight”, “locksmith” and other skills.
To avoid such fragmentation of the concept of ‘ability’, we consider the work as a holistic mental manipulation of knowledge. In this process it is possible to allocate the acquisition of knowledge, application of knowledge and the translation of knowledge and the preservation of knowledge. There is also the basis of the acquisition of knowledge to combine into a single bi-directional process. Thus, we obtain the following diagram, where are the three components of the above system.