More difficult to consider the degree of failure in learning. To estimate it is necessary to take into account all the indicators of the availability of digestible transport operations, techniques, actions in terms of a new similar problems and also all the evidence on the use of a child to assist him, including those of its most primitive form, the repetition of instructions, additional stimulation. However, of particular importance is the analysis of solutions child tasks constructed in such a way that the solution can be implemented in stages, using a graduated and for all the subjects of the same aid. This is the so-called training tasks, or rather the teaching experiment. The set of techniques used in psychological and pedagogical survey must include the job constructed in this way.
In very general terms, defining the level of learning (the extent of its failure), can be attributed to normal learning all cases when the child decides to fully own 60 – 80% of cognitive (intellectual) of different types of jobs, and the rest of coping after helping him, except the form of a direct prompt or direct demonstration of the complete solution.
[Editor's Note. In this case, we see that 60-80% are not to that of normal children, and to the number of jobs. Thus, the actual scale used raw test scores, simply translated into a standard scale by taking the number of tasks presented as 100%. The formulation of any quantitative criterion for the "raw" scale actually assumes no guidance information for the reader is a specific set of tasks, and depends entirely on how - difficult or easy - is this particular set.]
The average degree of learning in terms of failure can be recorded in cases where a child independently performs 30 – 50% and 60-80% of jobs after one or two stages of care.
As a rough learning deficiency (low levels of it) are estimated cases where the child for the job has to provide care in the most developed form, up to demonstrate solutions. In the most severe cases, the decision may not be reproduced and after the demonstration.
Using the above estimates of the degree of failure of functions allocated as basic components of cognitive (cognitive) aspect of the structure of impaired development, allows a certain extent objectify the data obtained from the application of different tasks. If a set of tasks is full enough to evaluate the function of these characteristics, then putting the results of the survey in the relevant boxes below, you can see that mental retardation, mild mental retardation and general underdevelopment of speech quite clearly differentiated.
Table 3 shows the options for the location of the survey data, typical for the mentally retarded, mental retardation and general underdevelopment of speech. The degree of impairment is noted in the appropriate columns of the table.
The most typical cases of the categories are as follows.
If mental retardation is usually there are significant thought disorders, lung defects of speech development and a low level of learning.
Mild or moderate severity defects in the development of thinking, with the possible presence of some speech defects and several reduced (slightly or moderately) compared with the normal learning disability is usually observed at a delay of mental development.
The absence of disturbances in the development of mental activity (which is most clearly revealed in tasks of visual-practical), or a lack of intensity and preferential expression in the tasks of verbal and logical nature, significant shortcomings in the development of speech and near-normal or slightly reduced learning ability are characteristic of the total cases underdevelopment of speech.
For each category of developmental disorders are presented as the most common version of the combination of different degrees of severity of hypoplasia of the surveyed features, and less likely, but there are options. In appropriate cases, the data on the degree of insufficiency bracketed. Such variations in mental retardation primarily manifest themselves in a state of speech. Thus, in some cases, children with mild mental retardation, especially if during the preschool period, with them doing a lot of, speech development may be quite safe. And at the same time pedagogically neglected mentally retarded preschool children observed a pronounced lag in language development, roughly manifested to examine all sides of the question. Especially significant developmental disorders of speech observed in mentally retarded with a complex defect in which the diffuse lesion of the cerebral cortex is combined with a local injury speech zones.
Accordingly, when the general underdevelopment of speech may be a different level of learning, from near normal to moderate disease.
As can be seen from the above table, the maximum value for the differential psychodiagnosis developmental disorders given the peculiarities of mental activity (in three kinds of thinking), as speech development (including the three sides of the speech) and learning the child (as a general characterization of the potential of cognitive activity).
It is the ratio of these components (or factors) of the structure of mental activity, as we have tried to show, determines whether the child to a particular type of impaired development.
This does not mean that the particular memory or attention does not matter. Of course, in order to determine what corrective actions should be carried out with the child, it is important to know the other features of his mental activity. However, the main direction of the pedagogical work with the child is determined by these three factors. The mentally retarded child no matter what his memory and attention, it is advisable to send for training in a special school or a helper class. The same could be said about children with mental retardation. Regardless of other individual characteristics the ratio of basic elements (factors) of the structure of impaired development determines whether the training of children in the appropriate special school or special class alignment for children with delayed speech development.